A Timeline of History
The following Timelines are color coded in magenta, white, & blue font for clarity.

1. Sicilian's history of island facts and mafia events displayed in magenta colored font are not exclusive to this web site.

2. Followed by the American Cosa Nostra's Generic timeline and brief expressed views on each event displayed in white font, which are also not exclusive to this web site..   

3. Several events are displayed in blue font to separate the event and its actual effect on the future rise of the only True power of the Sicilian mafia and how it utilized the Americanized version, called the The Cosa Nostra from 1931, then as a fall organization from 1936 to today. There will be additional blue material added in the future, but only after the Arm of the Aged Don web site has completed its Rise of the Desert Empire page and a new additional page called Key Events & People.      

The following Timelines are color coded in magenta, white, & blue font for clarity.

1. Sicilian's history of island facts and mafia events displayed in magenta colored font are not exclusive to this web site.

2. Followed by the American Cosa Nostra's Generic timeline and brief expressed views on each event displayed in white font, which are also not exclusive to this web site..   

3. Several events are displayed in blue font to separate the event and its actual effect on the future rise of the only True power of the Sicilian mafia and how it utilized the Americanized version, called the The Cosa Nostra from 1931, then as a fall organization from 1936 to today. There will be additional blue material added in the future, but only after the Arm of the Aged Don web site has completed its Rise of the Desert Empire page and a new additional page called Key Events & People.      

The following Timelines are color coded in magenta, white, & blue font for clarity.

1. Sicilian's history of island facts and mafia events displayed in magenta colored font are not exclusive to this web site.

2. Followed by the American Cosa Nostra's Generic timeline and brief expressed views on each event displayed in white font, which are also not exclusive to this web site..   

3. Several events are displayed in blue font to separate the event and its actual effect on the future rise of the only True power of the Sicilian mafia and how it utilized the Americanized version, called the The Cosa Nostra from 1931, then as a fall organization from 1936 to today. There will be additional blue material added in the future, but only after the Arm of the Aged Don web site has completed its Rise of the Desert Empire page and a new additional page called Key Events & People.      


1072   Robert Guiscard and his brother Roger took Palermo in Sicily by force.

1154   Roger 11 Guiscard, King of Sicily from 1104-1154 dies at 60, William the bad succeeded his father, Roger the 11. 
1156   Battle at Brindisi: King William defeats a Byzantine fleet.

1194   Tancredo of Lecce, the King of Sicily dies.

1194   Frederick 11, a German Emperor from 1212-1250 and future King of Sicily, was born in Lesi, Italy
1197   Emperor Henry VI dies in Messina, Sicily. 
1266    Fe Charles d, Anjou, King of the two Sicily's is defeated at Manfred, in the Battle of Benevento. Manfred, the bastard son of Emperor Frederik 11, King of Sicily was killed in this battle.
1282   Furious inhabitants of Palermo attacked French occupation in the "Sicilian Vespers." The Mafia appeared in Sicily to revolt against French rule after a drunken soldier attacked a young women on her wedding day.
1282   the great massacre of the French in habitants in Sicily, called the Sicilian Vespers comes to an end, the birth of the Mafia or silent justice is secured.

1282   Villagers in Palermo lead a revolt against French rule over Sicily, which is the beginning of ending French rule over Sicily.

1303   The War of Vespers in Sicily finally is ended with an agreement between Charles of Valois of France and Frederick, the ruler of Sicily. 

1347   Sailors from Genoa arrived in Messina, Sicily. Plague had broken out earlier among the troops of the Kipchak Khan, who was besieging the Black Sea port of Kaffa. He catapulted dead bodies over the city walls, this had a ripple effect from Sicily when Italian trading vessels that were in the Harbour returned to Genoa and carried the plague with them to Europe. The plague, an infectious fever caused by the bacillus Yersinia pestis, which appears in several varieties: bubonic ( which involves swelling of the lymph glands), and pneumonic ( which involves the lungs) and septicemia ( which involves severe infection in the bloodstream.   

1366   King Frederick 111 of Sicily forbade decorations on synagogues, securing his grip on the Sicilian society.
1416   Ferdinand 1 the Justified, King of Aragon & Sicily dies.
1428   King of Alfonso V orders Sicily's Jews to convert to Catholicism, the Vatican influence in Sicily is made public.
1452   Ferdinand II, the Catholic King of Aragon (1479-1516) and King of Sicily (1468-1516) was born. He is known for bankrolling Columbus's journeys to the New World and expelling the Jews off the Sicilian mainland. 
1492   over 100,000 Jews were expelled from the homes and off the Island of Sicily, this is a direct result of the Vatican’s influence in Sicily. And of course 1492 was the year Columbus took his first voyage to the coast of the New World, eventually called the United States of America.
1493   This was the last day for all Jews to leave Sicily in a peaceful manner, those who didn't adhere to the Kings order, were exterminated, sounds like the same agenda of the NAZI regime of Germany in the 1930's.  

1669   Mount Etna in Sicily erupted which killed over 15,000, I mention this event because it’s like a sign from a higher power on the persecution of the Jews.
1669   Mount Etna, Sicily erupts again and destroys the city of Nicolosi, killing most of its inhabitants, over 20,000 people. 
1693   Mount Etna of the Sicilian island erupts for the 3rd time in since its first eruption in a century in Mar. of 1669, killing over 20,000 people, it comes in 3's and these eruptions from 1669 to 1693 is given public scrutiny on the eviction of the Jews off the island of Sicily.
1740   Charles de Bourbon, King of Naples, see's and opportunity and invites the Jews to return to Sicily
1848   The people's uprising took place in Palermo, Sicily which lays the seed for a change in Sicilian rule.
1860   Gisueppe Garibaldi landed at Marsala, Sicily. He began a series of military campaigns that politically unifies the Island of Sicily and most of the Italian peninsula in 1861. What most truth seekers do not mention is Mr. Garibaldi is a direct descendant of the Bonanno Family and gets his orders from the Joe Bonanno Sr. of that time period, which the House of Bonanno sits in hidden power in the Cove of Castellammare Del Golfo. This is one of the Key events in the Bonanno family’s rise to Global power. 

1864   Publication in the Sicilian capital Palermo of the first ever study of the Mafia, which was one of the first publications to call the shadowy organization the Mafia. The author of this article had inside knowledge and was requested to write an exposure article of the so called Sect, which from than own would be referred to as The Mafia.

1865  The same publication out of Palermo, Sicily does another article on The Mafia and its connection to the Civil War through Giuseppe Mezzini. The author was found shot on his front doorstep 2 weeks after this article ran, obviously this one was not requested by the true power of Sicily which was the Castellammarese of the cove port city of Castellammare Del Golfo.

1875  The first detailed testimony is left by one of the Mafia's victims, it states in one sentence, "In the mafia's language, a thief and a murderer is a Man of Honor: a victim is known as a abject spy for r the system and that the real Mafia boss of Sicily was Antonio Giammona, this was the first time the courts ever had a actual victims last written words with such material on the hidden organization that ran Sicily, called the mafia. What was not known during this time period was that all supposed Mafia bosses of this time period were subservient or got there orders from the hidden Kingdom of the Castellammare which at this time was ran by the first Joe Bonanno Sr.

Also in 1875 a Chief Prosecutor of the Palermo judicial system denounces the Italian governemnts collusion with the Sicilian Mafia with in the Italian parliament. This was and had been standard practice since Giuseppe Garabaldi conquered both continents of Italy & Sicily which put the Bonanno Family of the Castellammare the main power of both, Italy and the island of Sicily, this is the first time anyone has placed this type of inside information in print.

1877  All the information or documentation that the Chief prosecutor of Sicily gathered and handed over to his superiors in the Judicial system was buried to back files and most of it completely disappeared. The Prosecutor decided the threat he was given on his life was for real and that it would be best for him to look the other way as almost all others did at this time period in history and on into the 1900's, which this web site will show was one of the most controlled and corrupted period in all history. The small island of Sicily's reach became global when the prodigal son was born Jan. 18, 1905 in Joseph Bonanno of the 1900 time period, remember there was a Joe Bonanno Sr in the 1800s with sons called Salvatore, Joe Jr, and 3 others which was only known to the family itself, which is why we call it the Hidden Kingdom of the House of Bonanno.

1883 Discovery of the mafia association known as the Brotherhood of Favara.

1896   Charles " Lucky" Luciano, a future NYC Mafia gangster and supposed founder of the Americanized version of the Sicilian Mafia is born in Palermo, Sicily in poverty, and in the early 1900's his family migrates to the American streets with no solid connections to the Sicilian Mafia's most powerful regime, The Bonanno's who with there blood kin Giuseppe Garabaldi conquering the Sicilian Island & the Italian mainland was in total but hidden control. Lucky Luciano's true nickname should have been The Super fall Guy for the hidden Kingdom of the House of Bonanno.

1898-1900  The Chief Prosecutor who we refer to in the last couple of entry's in this timelines assistant becomes the Chief of Police of Palermo and puts together a full journal of  a who, what, when with times, dates, and places of key events from 1865 to 1898 of the Mafia's takeover and total control of the Italian Government and its reach into the Island of Sicily, which was ruled by this Italian system of Government including the judicial system. As his predecessors report, his most damaging facts mostly disappeared and the rest of the file was buried to the back files of the Italian system.

1904 Palizzolo's name was first published in 1864 as a enforcer in an hidden organization called the mafia and was indicted but the witness against him was found hanging in a hotel room in Florence were he was supposed to be in a house of safety to testify against Don Raffaelo Palizzolo, so he was acquitted, the Arm of the Castellammare was evident to all of Sicily.


1908   approx. 70,000-100,000 people died in the Messina earthquake in Sicily. The government hired a number of steamships, including some from Florida to ship the survivors to America were several main soldiars of the hidden Kingdom of the Castellammare were on board and moved to America for there planned take over in the next 2 decades.   

1909  New York police Lt. Joe Petrosino is murdered in broad daylight in the center of Palermo, the New York cop was in Sicily investigating the connection from the island to the Big Apple, obviously he was in way over his head, nothing was done from either city of New York or Palermo on this ruthless murder, which should show anyone who doubts the reach of the Sicilian Mafia as early as this time period murder in 1909.

1915 The mayor of Corleone and local hero of the struggle against the mafia is brutally murdered. In a posthumous secret testimony he reveals how he was initiated into the Brotherhood of the mafia in 1893 with its power coming from the Castellammare, not Palermo. This secret testimony was his doom, due to the shadows immense power and hidden representatives inside the judicial system of not only Sicily, but the mainland of Italy.

1926 Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini launches his war on Sicilian organized crime with the siege of Gangi. he soon declares total victory, which is in the future proved to be very premature.   

1943   the US invasion fleet, 96 ships sails to Sicily through a violent ocean storm. This military invasion is the end result of a deal between the US Navy & the American Cosa Nostra called Operation Underworld.
1943   American & British forces make an amphibious landing on the island of Sicily. The man who never was pulls of one of the greatest deceptions in military history-after his death, This hoax was just several of the pre-planned deception by the Powers of the hidden Kingdom to free the island of Sicily of NAZI's and leave there handpicked Mafioso in full power of the Sicilian island, mainly for there future Heroin drug business.

1943   US & British forces complete their amphibious landing in Sicily with Operation Husky, led by a general with Italian heritage in George Patton. 

1943   There was a British assault on Catania, Sicily, with General Montgomery leading the charge, which began the race between the British's Montgomery & America's general Patton’s drive to reach Messina first

1943   The Allied conquest of Sicily called Operation Husky is completed when both the US & British forces enters Messina freeing the Island of Nazi rule but in its place is direct representatives of the Americanized led Sicilian Mafia ruled in the shadows by Joe Bonanno Sr. with his Castellamerese clan being his advisors from both the Castellammare & his new home base of Power since his move from NY to TUCSON, ARIZONA IN 1942. 
1944, Jan. 16, The US army hands over the reins of power to the local "anti-fascists, who were in fact, the Mafioso leaders handpicked by the Castellammare Council of Elders in Sicily, but only with the blessing of the King of both continents of Sicily & America, Joe Bonanno Sr.

1950  Jul 15, Salvatore Giuliano who was born in 1922 is shot by the police of Castelvetrano, Sicily, which was ordered by the Castellammerese to shut up the revolutionary who was working for the Bonanno's to create the fear factor for the Kingdoms control by al means.

1957 Oct 10-14th,  this day in Sicilian history will one day be viewed as the beginning of the end for a free Sicily. After WW II's Operation Underworld which was a deal between the US Navy and the American Mafia in 1942, supposedly Lucky Luciano from Prison helped secure the Americans invasion of Sicily, but the problem with that generic story is that Luciano was born a poor immigrant in Palermo in 1896 and his family migrated to America with no Sicilian connections of any kind. It was the main man of this meeting at the Grand Palme Hotel in Palermo Joe Bonnano Sr. who was the force behind the invasion and this meeting. This was a key point in not only Sicilian Mafia's history, but the true rise to complete power over the true power behind the Americanized version called the Cosa Nostra in America with The Bonnano Family being the only key player. Due to the importance of this information I have chose to take a couple of sentences out of an article by Robby Grondale that is posted on this websites Brian Downing Quig's page, called a Meeting took Place.    

(The meeting was from October 10 till 14th 1957. From the American delegation the following men were present: from the Bonanno Family, Joe Bonanno, and boss, Frank Garafolo, underboss, Carmine Galante, consigliere, and John Bonventre, capo. From the Buffalo Family, Antonio, Giuseppe and Gaspare Maggadino. From Detroit, John Priziola and Santo Sorge. What strikes you most about this delegation is that Joe Bonanno only took his Administration and cousins, the Maggadino brothers with him. Santo Sorge was cousin from Don Genco Russo, the most important boss from Sicily. Of course was Charlie Luciano also present. Not only that, but there was nobody else from the Commission. Kind of strange. Maybe because at the time Joe Bonanno already saw himself as the chairman of the board and trusted only his top aids and family. He was important. When he arrived in Rome, the Italian foreign trade minister, Bernardo Mattarella was waiting for him. Even a red carpet was rolled out for him. The minister came from the same village in Sicily as Joe Bonanno; Castellamare Del Golfo.

The Sicilian delegation was: Genco Russo, Salvatore ‘Cichiteddu’ (Little bird) Greco from the Ciaculli Family, Calcedonio DiPisa, his underboss, the La Barbera brothers from the Porta Nuova Family, Geatano Badalamenti from the Cinisi Family and Tommaso Buscetta, also from the Porta Nuova Family.)

As you can see and surmise for yourself, only Joe Bonnano Sr. and his representatives from his American family were present and his handpicked reps form Sicily to form a Commission just like the one in America, but this one would be subservient to the reel power base city only, which was not in New York, but in Tucson, Arizona from 1942 on. You can read more on this on this website RISE OF A DESERT EMPIRE PAGE.    

1972  May 5, Alitalia DC-8 plane crashes west of Palermo, Sicily, killing all of the 115 passengers, this was ordered by the local Mafioso to eliminate a government witness which was on the plane, with no regards to the other 114 innocent passengers.  
1978-1994  A power struggle rages between Salvatore "The Beast" Riina of Corleone and Gaetano Badalamenti of Cinisi. This inner struggle for the supposed power of Sicily killed an estimated 12-14 thousand people over the 16 year chaos, again the Fear factor on the average Sicilian citizen was the main purpose of this civil war between two second rate Mafioso soldiers, the true powers behind this struggle was the Castellamarese's Corleone rep in Bernardo Provenzano who got his marching orders from America in Joe Bonanno Sir’s handpicked buffers such as Thomas Buscetti. 
1980  Jun 27, another plane this time a DC-9 crashes near Sicily and 81 people are killed. In 1999 it was reported that a flight by warplanes from the Italian mainland led to the crash, it was basically shot out of the sky by the Mafioso using there Italian government connections, there was never a reason given for the planes destruction, but the Sicilian grapevine states it was to eliminate another stool pigeon who had info on the True powers of Sicily, the Castellammerese.    
1986  Feb 10, the largest Mafia trial in history, with 474 defendants opens up in Palermo, Sicily. The trial ends on December 16, 1987, almost 2 year after it began. Of the 474 defendants, those present and those tried in absentia, 360 were convicted, and 2,665 years of prison sentences were shared out between the guilty, not including the life sentences. A total of 114 defendants were acquitted. The star witness for the prosecution was hand delivered by the Castellammare & its American power arm of Joe Bonnano in Thomas Buscetta. 
1991  Aug 29, Libero Grassi, an Italian underwear manufacturer and anti mafia spokesman is gunned down in front of his factory in Palermo, the first sign that the Mafia powers that be were not indicted in the major trial of 1986.  

1992,  May 23, In Sicily anti-mafia investigator and prosecuting attorney of Sicily Giovanni Falcone is murdered on a highway outside of Palermo. Falcones wife and 3 bodyguards were also killed by the bomb that blew a huge crater in the highway almost a city block long, In this same time period a couple of days later, Sicilian Politician and Falcone supporter Salvo Lima is also murdered. Aniti Mafia investigator and Falcones assistant Paolo Borsellino is killed in another blast 3 months later in front of his mothers apartment complex. In 1997 Pietro Aglieri, aka "The Little Gentleman" was arrested for the involvement in all 3 murders. 24 other mobsters were convicted in the murders in 1997. 
1993  Jan 15, In Sicily, Salvatore "The Beast" Riina is arrested. Riina, the supposed Sicilian boss of Bosses was arrested for his role in the murder of prosecutor Giovanne Falcone. Bernardo "The Tractor" Provenzano who had been on the lamb since the early 1960s takes over after the arrest of Riina, Provenzano's right hand man in this take over was a Mariano Troia, both were hidden representatives of the Castellammare & its true power base at this time period in Tucson, AZ under the Only True Boss of Bosses, Joe Bonnano Sr. 

1993  May 9, Pope John Paul II makes an anti-Mafia speech in Agrigento, Sicily for the people of Sicily to make an extreme effort to end the rule by fear of the Mafioso and make a stand anyway they could to assist the local law find the rest of the hidden power representatives, it was to no avail though, but at least the Pope tried.
1993  May 21, The Reverend Giuseppe Puglisi, who was inspired by the Popes plea against organized crimes hold on Sicily speaks out from his pulpit to his flock, the next day he is shot in the back of the head while stepping out on his doorstep at home. In 1999 Giuseppe Graviano, a Mafia Boss, was convicted and sentenced to life in prison for ordering the preachers murder.   
1997  Sep 3, the local Catania press reports that the city with a population of 378,000 Sicilians has over 100 mafia killings per year since the mid 80s.
1998  Sep 15, Italian police arrested Mariano Troia who was 65 years of age and one of the most notorious known Mafia figures near Palermo, the next target was his boss Bernardo Provenzano who had not been seen since 1962. 
1999  Oct 23, In Palermo, Sicily, Giulio Andreotti who was 80 years of age & 7 times prime minister of Italy was acquitted of the charges that he was the Sicilian mafia's protector and main government representative in Rome, the Arm of power of the hidden Kingdom of the Casetellammare in Sicily & Tucson, AZ of America reached out and fixed this or there long time buffer to the Italian Government.
2001  Jan 8, The Mafia Archipelago under the new Cosa Nuova was estimated to have annual earnings of over $30 billion dollars in that region alone, just a touch of the ice berg for the full Mafioso machine, which by 2001 the American Arm of powers drug business alone was pulling in over 6.7 Trillion a year, lot of cash to serve there needs of bribing men like Andreotti. 
2001  Jun 10, a major representative of what that type of dollar can buy is in Silvio Berlusconi known as II Cavaliere becomes premier for a 2nd time and began to from his second cabinet. he promises a 100 day revolution to transform the economy of Italy, all 61 single member constituencies in Sicily went to the center-right and backed this power play, of course in 2006 its in national news that Mr. Berlusconi was and always had ties to the Sicilian mafia's money machine, business as usual for the hidden kingdom.
2002  Jun 7, it is reported that Italy had committed to a $4.3 billion dollar project for a suspension bridge linking the island of Sicily to the Italian mainland with a 2 mile wide bridge in the Straits of Messina. Mafia connections are are key to making this construction job happen, due to they would get a huge sum of kick back money for supplying most of the construction crews and material, this is how they survive. 
2002  Jul 20, In northeastern Sicily a passenger train derailed and apparently crashed into an abandoned house, killing at least 8 people and wounding 30 others, 2 days later there is a message to the local prosecutor to back off of there hunt for Mafioso's Bernardo Provenzano or other such events would occur, this is how this Evil organization has stayed in power, the fear factor, which is used constantly by the Bush administration to keep the American public fooled in the same manner as the Sicilians.

2002  Sep 10, In Sicily the strongest earthquake in century’s causes an estimated 1/2 billion in damage, another sigh from a higher power that humbles the local men of power, but doesn't change there ruthless direction. 
2002, Oct 27, Again a act of nature is worth mentioning, Mount Etna erupts for the first time since 1669, spewing thick clouds of ash and magma over a large area surrounding the mountain.
2002  Nov. 19, Vito Ciancimino born in 1924 and former mayor of Palermo and leading Mafioso tied to the Corleonese clans Bernardo Provenzano dies while under house arrest. Before his death he reminisces on his rise to power after WW II, with his American cohorts working through the Army reps give him the title of mayor of Parlermo. In 2006 Francesco Zummo faced charges of laundering money to Monaco on the behalf of Vito Ciancimino, which the real powers of the Mafia found out and this rolled into his arrest and untimely and unexplained death.
2004,Jun 11, In Palermo, Sicily a court convicts and sentences 30 top Sicilian Mafioso to life imprisonment after a 10 year trial that covered over 77 murders of elimination in the old regime to control the power.

2005  Jul 11, a judge ordered the arrest and isolation of 3 senior officers of the Banco di Credito Cooperative Sofiage Gela. A small bank on Sicily's southern coast. They had been under investigation for aiding and abetting the Mafia, laundering large sums of money in bundles with the name Bernardo on them, several were confiscated during raids during this investigation.  
2005  Oct 28, Police in Sicily said they have arrested 2 suspected mobsters tied with the elusive Bernardo Provenzano of plotting to murder a local Palermo Judge with a car bomb, this was an important step in the eventual arrest of the hidden Corloene boss of Bernardo Provenzano, who had not been seen by any law since 1962.

2006 Nov 15,  A court in Palermo, Sicily, convicts 46 deputies, confidants, and helpers of the jailed Mafia boss Bernardo Provenzano, many of whom helped the former fugitive evade capture for over 4 decades and sentenced them of up to 18 years in prison, end of a long chapter of plight, fright of murder and chaos for one of the Castellammare's most evil reps in Bernardo " The Tractor" Provenzano and a major move in getting this diabolical Organization in control, although THE JOBS NOT DONE, THE TRUTH OF THER EAL POWER OF SICILY TO AMERICA, THE CASTELLAMARE HAS TO BE EXPOSED, WHICH IS WHAT THIS WEB SITE IS DEDICATED TO DO.  



January 16, 1920: The 18th Amendment to the Constitution became effective making Prohibition a national law. The following day, the Volstead (or Prohibition Enforcement) Act became affective. Although organized crime had existed in the United States prior to this time, it was the bonanza of Prohibition which enabled the small, but powerful, LCN to capitalize upon its international contacts, its reputation for ruthlessness, and--above all--its rigidly disciplined structure of cooperating gangs to establish the position of unrivaled eminence it holds in the American  underworld today.

May 11, 1920: James (Big Jim) Colosimo, Chicago Camorra head, was shot and killed in his restaurant. He was succeeded by Johnny Torrio.

August 11, 1922: Umberto Valenti, alleged former "right arm" of New York City LCN boss Salvatore D'Aquila, was shot to death on the running board of an automobile after his friends had conducted an intensive campaign to get D'Aquila to cancel the "contract" he had issued for Valenti's murder.

November 10, 1924: Dion O'Banion, Chicago gang leader, was shot to death in his flower shop while preparing the floral arrangements for Mike Merlo's funeral. Since he had been head of one of the major independent mobs then competing with the LCN in the power struggle known as the Prohibition "beer wars," O'Banion's death marked an important milestone in the LCN's march to eventual domination of the American underworld. Indicative of the bloodiness of this struggle is the fact that more than 700 gangland slayings occurred in the Chicago area alone between 1920 and 1933, with 76 being recorded in the year 1926 and 72 in 1928.

January 24, 1925: Chicago Camorra head Johnny Torrio was shot and seriously wounded. He subsequently resigned his position and was succeeded by Alphonse (Scarface Al) Capone.

July 1, 1928: New York City Mobster Frankie Yale (true name: Uale) was shot to death while taking a Sunday afternoon drive in Brooklyn, New York.

September 7, 1928: Antonio Lombardo, boss of the Chicago Family, was shot and killed on a downtown sidewalk. The importance of Lombardo's death is that it is said to have sealed the merger of the LCN and the Camorra in the Chicago area. Reportedly, Al Capone, head of the Chicago branch of the Camorra, was offered membership and a ranking position in the LCN if he would have Lombardo murdered.

October 10, 1928: Salvatore (Toto) D'Aquila, head of what is now the Carlo Gambino Family and allegedly "boss of all bosses," was shot and killed while standing beside his automobile in New York City. He was succeeded as Family head by Frank Scalise.

November 4, 1928: New York City gambling figure Arnold Rothstein was shot at Park Centre Hotel and died 2 days later.

May 16, 1929: Al Capone, boss of the Chicago Family, was arrested by the Philadelphia Police on a charge of carrying concealed weapons shortly after leaving what he described as a 3-day "peace conference" of leading mobsters in an Atlantic City, New Jersey, hotel.

June 11, 1929:  Salvatore (Black Sam) Todaro, boss of the Cleveland Family, was shot to death while approaching a parked car. He was succeeded by Joe Porello.

February 26; 1930: Gaetano (Tommy) Reina, boss of what later became the Thomas Luchese Family, was shot and killed leaving a building in New York City. He was succeeded by Joseph Pinzolo. The murders of D'Aquila and Reina (allegedly by followers of Giuseppe Masseria) are said to have been 2 of the main causes of the bloody Castellammarese gangland war that raged throughout much of 1930 and 1931.

May 31, 1930: Gaspare Milazzo, boss of the Detroit Family was shot to death in a fish market. His successor is not known.

July 5, 1930: Joe Porello, boss of the Cleveland Family, was shot to death--along with his bodyguard--in Frank Milano's restaurant. He was succeeded by Milano.

September 5, 1930: Joseph Pinzolo, boss of the former Reina Family in New York City, was shot to death in a Manhattan office building. He was succeeded by Thomas Gagliano and, later, by Thomas Luchese. Luchese was arrested for Pinzolo's murder, but the grand jury failed to indict him.

October 23, 1930: Joseph Aiello, former underboss of the Chicago Family, was shot and killed leaving a friend's apartment house.

November 5, 1930: Stephen Ferrigno and Manfredi Mineo, top aides to Giuseppe Masseria, were shot to death in New York City by followers of rival gang leader Salvatore Maranzano.

April 15, 1931: Giuseppe Masseria, "boss of all bosses" was shot to death in a Coney Island, New York restaurant. He was succeeded as Family head by Salvatore "Lucky" Lucania and as "boss of all bosses" by Salvatore Maranzano. After Masseria's murder, there were significant changes in the LCN's structure. Individual groups became known as families and the fathers became "bosses." Regional designations were dropped, and the families took the names of their original leaders. More important were organizational shakeups during 1931. Luciana took over the Masseria (Napolitana) Family, with Frank Costello as underboss; Vito Genovese was a trusted associate, and later became the boss and the organization was known as the Genovese Family. Joseph Profaci retained control of the Villabate group that now bore his name and later became the Joseph Colombo Family. Philip Mangano assumed control of the Mineo (Palermitana) Family, which later became the Carlo Gambino Family. Gaetano Gagliano became boss of the Reina (Siciliani) Family, later identified as the Thomas Luchese Family. Joseph Bonanno became underboss in the Maranzano (Castellemmare) Family which eventually bore his name.

September 10, 1931: Salvatore Maranzano, successor to Masseria, was shot and stabbed to death in his Manhattan office building by 4 members of Meyer Lansky's Jewish mob posing as police officers. This assistance rendered to one of the warring factions in the Castellammarese war consolidated Lansky's alliance with the victorious segment and accounts for much of the respect he enjoyed in the underworld. A second, and still more important result of Maranzano's death was the abolition of the old title "boss of all bosses" and the establishment of the "Commission" system to assign territories, adjudicate disputes, and exercise internal discipline. Members included: Salvatore Lucania (known variously throughout the underworld as "Charley Lucky" and "Lucky Luciano"); Joe Profaci; Thomas Gagliano: Joseph Bonanno; Vincent Mangano (who had deposed Frank Scalise as head of the old D

September 13, 1931: Joseph Siragusa, boss of the Pittsburgh Family, was shot to death in his home. He was succeeded by John Bazzano.

October 15, 1931: Joe Ardizonne, boss of the Los Angeles Family, disappeared and is presumed to have been murdered. He was succeeded by Jack Dragna. Following the death of  Salvatore Maranzano, a wave of gangland slayings, known as the "Sicilian Vespers," swept the country, allegedly including both Ardizonne and the previously mentioned Siragusa.

October 17, 1931: Al Capone, boss of the Chicago Family, was convicted on Federal charges of income tax evasion. He was fined $50,000 and sentenced to 11 years in prison.

December 18, 1931: Jack (Legs) Diamond, New York City hoodlum, was shot to death in an Albany, New York, boardinghouse after reportedly refusing to take sides in the Castellammarese gangland war. His murder is said to have been committed by an unidentified member of the Vito Genovese faction.

February 8, 1932: Vincent (Mad Dog) Coll, New York City hoodlum, was shot to death in a Manhattan telephone booth, reportedly at the instructions of LCN boss Salvatore Lucania.

July 29, 1932:   John, Arthur and James Volpe--notorious underworld figures and bootleggers--were shot to death in a Pittsburgh coffee shop, allegedly at the orders of John Bazzano, boss of the Pittsburgh Family.

August 8, 1932: The body of John Bazzano, boss of the Pittsburgh Family, was found in the middle of a Brooklyn, New York, street—strangled and stabbed to death and sewn into a burlap sack. Bazzano was reportedly murdered when, called to New York City to explain the slayings of the 3 Volpe brothers, he replied that what he did in Pittsburgh vas no concern to anyone else in the organization. Bazzano was succeeded by Vincenzo Capizzi as head of the family.

December 5, 1933: The 21st Amendment to the Constitution became law, repealing Prohibition. The resulting end of their bonanza caught mob leaders with large hordes of wealth, vast fleets of trucks, and whole armies of trained gunmen at their disposal. Most branched out into other fields of criminal endeavor (such as gambling, loan shaking, narcotics, labor racketeering, etc.), whereas quite a few added to their flow of illicit wealth by investing their funds in a succession of legitimate investments, ranging from real estate and manufacturing plants to hospitals and theatrical agencies. It was also at this time that many racket leaders tried to play down their past histories and adopt an air of pseudo respectability in their local communities.

July 10, 1934:   John Lazia, boss of the Kansas City Family, was fatally shot in front of his residence during the early morning hours. He died later that afternoon and was succeeded by Charles V. Carrollo.

September 19, 1934: Ferdinand (The Shadow) Boccia was shot to death in Brooklyn, New York. Subsequently developed as a prime suspect in the slaying, Vito Genovese fled to Italy and did not return until after World War II.

January 30, 1935: Frank Milano, former boss of the Cleveland Family, entered Mexico. He was granted a permanent immigration visa on April 13, 1942. He was succeeded as boss by Alfred (Big Al) Polizzi.

August 22, 1935: Vincenzo Troia, formerly a close associate of "boss of all bosses" Salvatore Maranzano and himself a nominee for the position following the death of Giuseppe Masseria in 1931, was shot to death for allegedly plotting to seize control of the Newark, New Jersey, Family.

October 23, 1935: Arthur (Dutch Schultz) Flegenheimer, a participant in the Castellammarese gangland war of the early 1930s, was fatally shot in a Newark restaurant after an "open contract" had been issued by LCN officials for his murder. He died the following evening.

February 15, 1936: Vincent Gebardi, better known as "Machine Gun" Jack McGurn, was shot to death at a Chicago bowling alley.

May 19, 1936: Mrs. Nicholas Longo, sister and next-door neighbor of Buffalo Commission member Steve Magaddino, was killed by an early morning bomb blast believed intended for her brother.

June 7, 1936: Salvatore Lucania (Lucky Luciano) and 8 associates were convicted on 62 counts each of compulsory prostitution charges. Luciano was sentenced to a prison term of 30-50 years'. Succeeded by Frank Costello, Luciano served more than 9 years' before New York Governor Thomas Dewey recommended clemency. He noted that Luciano had cooperated with the Armed Forces during World War II when the Navy, fearing sabotage, had asked his help in gathering intelligence and controlling the docks. Luciano was paroled and immediately deported.

August 17, 1936: "Big Nose" John Avena (also known as John Nazzone), boss of the Philadelphia Family, was shot to death while talking to a friend on a Philadelphia street corner. He was succeeded by Joseph Bruno.

February 22, 1937: Gaspare D'Amico, boss of the Newark Family, was shot and seriously wounded reportedly at the instructions of Commission member Joseph Profaci. Upon his recovery, D'Amico is said to have fled the country, and it is probably at this time that the Commission voted to dissolve the Newark Family and parcel out its operations to the various New York City Families, including the one headed by Profaci.

May 2, 1938: Detroit gang leader Joe Tocco was fatally shot in the back and died the following day. Reportedly, his death was one of the major factors leading to the ultimate consolidation of power in the Detroit area by LCN Commission member Joe Zerilli.

August 24, 1939: New York City hoodlum Louis Lepke Buchalter, after 25 months as a fugitive on Federal Antitrust charges, surrendered to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover in New York City. Buchalter was subsequently turned over to local authorities and executed for murder.

November 16, 1939: Al Capone vas released from Federal custody and committed to a hospital for treatment of paresis.

November 12, 1941: Abe Reles, a prime witness in the local investigation of "Murder, Incorporated," fell to his death during the early morning hours from his guarded hotel room in Coney Island, New York. The grand jury returned a verdict of accidental death.

January 11, 1943: Carlo Tresca, editor of the Italian-language newspaper Il Martello was shot to death on a Manhattan street corner. The prime suspect was identified as Carmine Galante, later named Capodecina (or Captain) in the Joseph Bonanno Family. When the New York City police assigned 1,000 officers to the investigation, Bonanno moved to Tucson, Arizona.

February 2, 1943: Estelle Carey, Chicago's "Queen of the Dice Girls" vas brutally murdered and burned, possibly because of her involvement in the movie extortion ring then being investigated by the FBI.

March 19, 1943: On the day his Federal indictment was announced, Frank Nitti shot himself to death alongside a railroad track in Riverside, Illinois, after reportedly threatening a nearby train crew.

December 22, 1943: DeLucia, Campagna, Roselli, and 4 other defendants were convicted in the film-industry extortion case. All were fined $10,000 apiece, and the sentences ranged from 7 to 10 years'. With the death of Nitti in 1943, and the departure of Delucia and Campagna for prison in 1944, Anthony Accardo was named boss of the Chicago Family.

August 7, 1944: Vito Genovese, indicted for the 1934 murder of Ferdinand Boccia, was arrested by American authorities in Italy. He arrived in the United States June 1, 1945, to stand trial, but the main witness against him died of an "overdose of sedative" while in protective custody and, on June 10, 1946, Genovese's trial ended with a directed verdict of acquittal.

October 19, 1944: Alfred Polizzi, boss of the Cleveland Family, pleaded guilty to charges of failing to pay Federal liquor taxes and, after his release from prison in 1945, moved to Coral Gables, Florida. He was succeeded by John Scalish.

November 29, 1944: Frank Todaro, boss of the New Orleans Family, died. He was succeeded by Sylvestro (Sam) Carollo.

February 1, 1946: Former Commission member Salvatore Lucania (Lucky Luciano) deported to Italy.

June 24, 1946:  Race-wire operator James M. Ragen was shot from a truck while driving in rush-hour traffic on a Chicago street. Reportedly attacked for refusing to sell out to the hoodlum element, he died of his wounds on August 14, 1946.   

October 22, 1946: Joseph Bruno, boss of the Philadelphia Family, died in a Mew York City hospital. He was succeeded by Joe Ida.

December 26, 1946: The formal opening of the Flamingo Hotel Casino in Las Vegas--backed by such hoodlum figures as Benjamin (Bugsy) Siegel, Meyer Lanky, Frank Costello, and Joe Adonis-- marked the infiltration of Nevada gambling by the organized criminal element. The formal opening of the hotel itself took place on March 1, 1947.

January 25, 1947: Former gangland czar Al Capone died of natural causes in his Miami Beach, Florida, home.

February 22, 1947: Salvatore Lucania (Lucky Luciano) was arrested by Cuban authorities after the United States discovered that he had been living on the island since October, 1946. (While in Havana, Lucania placed calls to all the top crime figures in the United States. Commission members Genovese, Costello, Anastasia, Accardo, Marcello-- even Lanky--who was not a member of the LCN, came to Havana. Many believe the occasion was to pass his power to Vito Genovese.) He was deported back to Italy on March 20, 1947.

April 30, 1947: Sylvestro (Sam) Carollo, boss of the New Orleans Family, deported. He was succeeded by Carlos Marcello. (His true name was Calogero Minacore, which was subsequently changed to Marcella and later masculinized to Marcello.)

May 7, 1947: Nick DeJohn, former Capodecina in the Chicago Family, was strangled and his body stuffed into the trunk of a car parked on a San Francisco street. DeJohn had reportedly fled Chicago after murdering several other LCN members and was living in Santa Rosa, California, under an alias at the time of his death.

June 20, 1947:  Benjamin (Bugsy) Siegel was shot to death through a living-room window while sitting in the Beverly Hills mansion of his paramour, Virginia Hill.

February 28, 1950: Abraham Davidian was shot to death in Fresno, California, while waiting to testify in a major West Coast narcotics trial.

April 6, 1950: Charles Binaggio, boss of the Kansas City Family, was found shot to death, along with his bodyguard, Charles Gargotta. He was succeeded by Anthony Gizzo.

May 26, 1950: The Senate Special Committee to Investigate Organized Crime in Interstate Commerce (popularly known as the Kefauver Committee, even though Senator Estes Kefauver resigned his chairmanship on May 1, 1951) opened hearings in Miami, Florida. Subsequent hearings were held in various cities throughout the country until August 17, 1951.

June 5, 1950: James Lumia, boss of the Tampa Family, was shot gunned to death on a street corner. He was succeeded by Santo Trafficante, Sr.

February 16, 1951: Thomas Gagliano, LCN Commission member from New York City, died of natural causes. He was succeeded by Thomas Luchese.

April 16, 1951: Sam Maceo, former underboss of the Texas Family, died of natural causes in a Baltimore, Maryland, hospital.

April 19, 1951: Philip Mangano, brother of Commission member Vincent Mangano, was found shot to death in a marshy section of Brooklyn, New York. Vincent disappeared at about the same time and has not been seen since. He was succeeded by Albert Anastasia as head of what was later to become the Carlo Gambino Family.

August 6, 1951: The "two Tonys," Broncato and Trombino, were shot to death in Los Angeles, reportedly for committing a robbery in a hoodlum-controlled Nevada hotel.

October 4, 1951: Willie Moretti, LCN gambling czar, was shot to death in a Cliffside Park, New Jersey restaurant. He is said to have been killed because he had become mentally ill and had been talking too much.

June 4, 1955: Carmella Profaci, daughter of Joseph Profaci, boss of the Profaci Family, married Anthony Tocco, son of William Tocco, LCN leader in Detroit. Joseph Zerilli, boss of the Detroit Family, and his brother-in-law William Tocco formed an alliance with Joseph Profaci following World War II. It was cemented by the above marriage and the marriage of another Profaci daughter to Anthony Zerilli, Joseph's son.

November 4, 1955: Willie Bioff, one of the Government's main witnesses in the 1943 film-industry extortion case, was killed when a bomb exploded in a truck at his Phoenix, Arizona, home.

February 23, 1956: Jack Dragna, boss of the Los Angeles Family, was found dead in a motel room reportedly of natural causes. He was succeeded by attorney Frank Desimone.

July 18, 1956:   The Narcotics Control Act of 1956 was signed into law, drastically increasing penalties for engaging in the illicit-drug trade.

October 17, 1956: The first of 3 meetings to discuss post-World War II domination of the U.S. heroin market by the LCN was held in Binghamton, New York. These high-level LCN meetings established Sicily as a major base in United States drug trade. Cuba, a major distributor in the smuggling of narcotics into the United States, had fallen into political turmoil. A new base was needed, and the 3 meetings of LCN chieftains were held primarily to establish such a base. LCN and Mafia leaders decided to formulate a common strategy. The second meeting took place between October 12-16, 1957, at the Hotel Delle Palme, Palermo, Sicily. The third meeting took place at the Apalachin mountain estate of mob boss Joseph M. Barbara on November 14, 1957.

February 25, 1957: George (Bugs) Moran, former prohibition rival of Al Capone, died of natural causes in the United States Penitentiary at Leavenworth while serving a 10-year sentence for bank robbery.

February 26, 1957: The Senate Select Committee on Improper Activities in the Labor or Management Field (popularly known as the "Senate Rackets Committee" and chaired by Senator John L. McClellan) opened hearings in Washington, D.C. Subsequent hearings lasted until December 3, 1958, and included an intensive probe into the hoodlum meeting held at Apalachin, New York.

May 2, 1957: Commission member Frank Costello received a minor head wound when he was shot entering his New York City apartment building. He reportedly stepped aside shortly thereafter and relinquished his Commission post to Vito Genovese, whose chauffeur and bodyguard, Vincent Gigante, had been the leading suspect in the shooting.

June 17, 1957:  Frank Scalise, former gang leader and top adviser to Commission member Albert Anastasia, was shot and killed in a New York City grocery store. At the time of his death, Scalise had reportedly been selling LCN memberships for as much as $40,000-$50,000 each, a practice that resulted in a lucrative side income and frightened rival mobs by causing the Anastasia Family to dwarf all the others in size.

September 7, 1957: Joe Scalise, brother of the murdered Frank Scalise, was reported by his relatives as a "missing person." According to underworld sources, he was killed and cut up into small pieces by LCN hoodlums acting under the direction of Vincent Squillante.

October 25, 1957: Albert Anastasia, LCN Commission member, and 2 bodyguards walked into the barbershop of the Park-Sheraton Hotel in Manhattan. Anastasia sat down, loosened his tie, and closed his eyes as the barber covered his face with a hot towel. The bodyguards slipped away. Two other men walked in from the hotel lobby, strode up to Anastasia, and literally blasted him out of the chair. The high executioner of Murder, Inc. had himself been executed. Anastasia's murder was ordered by Vito Genovese as part of the latter's plan to eliminate his more powerful rivals, dispense with the "Commission," and claim the long-since discarded title "boss of all bosses."

November 10, 1957: A national meeting of LCN leaders--reportedly larger than that held later in Apalachin, New York--convened at the Livingston, New Jersey, estate of Ruggiero Boiardo, a captain in the Vito Genovese Family. Lasting from approximately noon until 5 the following morning, the meeting is said to have covered such topics as Albert Anastasia's recent murder, the selection of Carlo Gambino as his successor, and the closing of the organization's membership "books" to further recruiting (an edict that lasted until 1972). Upon adjournment, the members present agreed to hold another session later in the week at the 58-acre Apalachin estate of Joseph M. Barbara, head of the Family centered in the Pittston, Pennsylvania-Binghamton, New York area.

November 14, 1957: The second session of the above meeting convened on November 13, 1957, at Apalachin, New York, on the estate of Joseph Barbara, Sr., for a continuation of the discussions regarding Anastasia, Gambino, and the ban on the recruiting of new members. Scheduled to last through November 15, the meeting broke up early in the afternoon of the 14th when detected by New York State Police. Although some 60 leading racket figures were detained and interrogated while trying to flee the premises, another 40 or 50 reportedly succeeded in making good their escape.

December 3, 1958: Gus Greenbaum, Las Vegas casino operator, and his wife were found murdered in their Phoenix, Arizona, home.

January 1, 1959: The Cuban Government under President Fulgencio Batista collapsed, resulting in widespread riots and the burning of homes, stores, and gambling casinos. With the advent of Fidel Castro's rise to power, the foreign casino owners (including some of the top names in the American underworld) were forced to abandon their gambling operations in Cuba.

February 26, 1959: Abner (Longie) Zwillman, New Jersey rackets figure, was found hanged in the basement of his mansion. Officially ruled a suicide, Zwillman's death came less than 2 weeks after 3 of his associates had been arrested by FBI Agents and charged with bribing jurors in Zwillman's income tax trial, which had ended in a hung jury on March 1, 1956.

April 11, 1959: Vito Genovese, Commission member from New York City, was convicted of violating Federal narcotics laws. He was sentenced to 15 years' on April 17, 1959, and remanded to custody in February, 1960, when his appeal was denied.

June 17, 1959:  Joseph M. Barbara, Sr., boss of the LCN Family centered in the Pittston, Pennsylvania-Binghamton, New York, area and host for the notorious meeting of hoodlum leaders at Apalachin, died of natural causes. He was succeeded by Russell A. Bufalino.

September 25, 1959: Anthony Carfano (also known as "Little Augie Pisano"), LCN mobster, was shot to death in his car after leaving a New York City night club. Also killed with Carfano was former "Miss America" contestant Janice Drake.

December 16, 1959: Roger (The Terrible) Touhy, former Chicago gangland figure and Capone rival, was fatally shot less than a month after his parole from prison.

September 23, 1960: Vincent Squillante, a "Capodecina" in the Carlo Gambino Family, was last seen driving a 1960 Chevrolet. Although Squillante is said to have been murdered for personal misconduct, neither he nor the car were ever found.

February 27, 1961: The Gallo-Profaci gangland war in New York City was launched with the kidnapping of a group of Commission member Joe Profaci's top aides by a faction of hoodlums loyal to Joe and Larry Gallo. Before the shooting stopped in August, 1963, at least 9 persons were killed; 15 were wounded, beaten or otherwise injured; 3 were reported missing and presumed to be dead; and 9 were fired at but missed.

April 4, 1961: Carlos Marcello, boss of the New Orleans Family, was deported to Guatemala.  Returning to the United States without permission, he surrendered to immigration authorities in June, 1961. Subsequent deportation proceedings have been thwarted by the refusal of other countries to accept him.

September 13, 1961: The Interstate Transportation in Aid to Racketeering (ITAR), Interstate Transportation and Wagering of Information (ITWI) and The Interstate Transportation of Wagering Paraphernalia (ITWP) Statutes were signed into law giving the FBI its major jurisdiction in the bookmaking and numbers-lottery areas.

October 20, 1961: John A. Kilpatrick, International President of the United Industrial Workers of America, was found shot to death in his car parked in a Chicago alley. An FBI investigation led to the conviction in local court of Detroit hoodlum William G. Triplett and his uncle Dana Horton Nash.

January 26, 1962: Salvatore Lucania (Lucky Luciano), former Commission member, died in Italy, apparently of natural causes.

April 8, 1962:   Anthony (Tony Bender) Strollo, a captain in the Vito Genovese Family and a close personal friend of Genovese, vanished during the late evening hours and was never seen again. Reportedly Strollo's death had been ordered by Genovese from his Atlanta prison cell because Strollo had been dealing in narcotics against Genovese's orders and was believed to be thereby jeopardizing Genovese's chances of obtaining parole.

June 6, 1962: Joseph Profaci, Commission member from New York City, died of natural causes. He was succeeded temporarily by his brother-in-law and top aide, Joseph Magliocco.

June 22, 1962; Joseph Valachi, then a prisoner in the Federal penitentiary in Atlanta, seized a 2-foot length of iron pipe, rushed fellow inmate John Saupp, and beat him to death. Valachi believed that the man he had killed was Joseph DiPalermo, who had been, Valachi thought, ordered by Vito Genovese, then in prison with Valachi, to kill him. The murder precipitated Valachi's break with the LCN and the chain of events that led to his public testimony on the structure of organized crime in America.

August 16, 1962: "Dandy Phil" Kastel, former underworld gambling czar and associate of LCN Commission member Frank Costello, committed suicide in New Orleans, reportedly because of ill health.

September 8, 1962: Joseph Valachi, while being questioned by the FBI, first acknowledged "La Cosa Nostra" as the name used by members of his organization.

August 16, 1962: "Dandy Phil" Kastel, former underworld gambling czar and associate of LCN Commission member Frank Costello, committed suicide in New Orleans, reportedly because of ill health.

September 8, 1962: Joseph Valachi, while being questioned by the FBI, first acknowledged "La Cosa Nostra" as the name used by members of his organization.

November 23, 1962:    Charles (Cadillac Charley) Cavallaro--a Youngstown, Ohio, gambling figure--and his 11-year-old son were killed by a bomb wired to the ignition of their automobile. This marked the 82nd bombing in the Youngstown area during a 10-year period.

January 7, 1963: Juke-box operator Anthony J. Biernat was kidnapped from the parking lot of the Kenosha, Wisconsin, railroad station. His lime-covered body was located on January 28, 1963, by an FBI Agent and local officers on an abandoned Air Force base about 20 miles away.

July 17, 1963: LCN commission member Joe Bonanno reportedly flew from New York City to Arizona, took his wife and car, and drove to the West Coast under an assumed name--all less than 2 weeks before he and Joe Magliocco (acting boss of the Profaci Family) were scheduled to appear before the Commission on charges of having plotted to kill 3 of the organization's top leaders. Bonanno was not seen again publicly until May, 1964, when he appeared in Canada and applied for permanent residence. Magliocco, in the meantime, allegedly admitted his guilt and was deposed as "acting boss."

September 25, 1963: The Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (popularly known as the McClellan Committee) opened hearings in Washington, D.C., regarding "Organized Crime and Illicit Traffic in Narcotics." Featuring the testimony of LCN member Joe Valachi, the hearings lasted periodically until August 5, 1964.

November 22, 1963: President John F. Kennedy was assassinated. After the President's assassination, the steam went out of the organized crime program. Prior to his death, for the first time in history, on a sustained, comprehensive basis, the syndicate was feeling the pressure, not just the public exposure of a congressional investigation, but prosecution for serious crimes. The committee was able to identify from Federal and local intelligence reports the organized crime families that dominated various areas and various illicit activities, including the identity of their bosses, underbosses, consiglieri, caporegime, and their members. With the President's death, the pressure was off the syndicate.

December 28, 1963: Joseph Magliocco, deposed acting boss of the late Joe Profaci's LCN Family in New York City, died apparently of natural causes.

March 15, 1964: William J. Sheridan was shot and killed in Roxbury, Massachusetts, by waterfront hoodlum George Mclaughlin (later arrested as a "Top Ten" fugitive and sentenced to death), thereby touching off a string of more than 60 gangland slayings in the Boston area during the next 5 years.

April 5, 1964:   The Gallo-Profaci war officially closed with the formal installation of Joseph Colombo as boss of the old Profaci Family. Reportedly, LCN officers from as far away as Detroit attended the ceremonies in New York City.

June 11, 1964: Retired Teamsters official Floyd R. Hayes was shot to death in Kansas City, Missouri, after testifying as a Government witness in a perjury case involving payoffs to some of his former associates.

July 30, 1964:   Commission member Joe Bonanno was deported from Canada to Chicago, Illinois, by airplane.

September 19, 1964: Samuel Rizzo DeCavalcante, head of the Elizabeth, New Jersey Family, met with Joe Bonanno and attempted to persuade him to appear before a meeting of the Commission on the earlier charges that he had planned to murder 2 or 3 of his fellow Commission members. When Bonanno refused, a special meeting of the Commission was called and he was expelled. As a result, the Bonanno LCN Family split into various warring factions, a number of gangland shootings took place, and an unsuccessful attempt was made on the life of Bonanno's son, Salvatore, in January, 1966, to try to keep him from succeeding his father.

October 21, 1964: Joe Bonanno, former Commission member from New York City and Tucson, Arizona, allegedly was kidnapped during the early morning hours from a Manhattan street corner and was not seen again publicly until 1966.

April 24, 1965: Owen Victor (Owney) Madden, former New York City rackets boss, died in Hot Springs, Arkansas, of natural causes.

November 23, 1965: Murray (The Camel) Humphrey, a leading Chicago rackets figure, died of natural causes several hours after having been arrested by FBI Agents for perjuring himself before a Federal grand jury.

January 28, 1966: A major gun battle was waged on a Brooklyn street at 10:45 p.m. involving an attempt by 4 or 5 gunmen on the life of Salvatore (Bill) Bonanno, son of deposed Commission member Joe Bonanno. May 17, 1966: Joe Bonanno surrendered in Federal court at New York City after having allegedly been kidnapped on October 21, 1964, the day he had been scheduled to testify before a Federal grand jury sitting in the SDNY. He was immediately arraigned on a 1-count indictment charging him with Obstruction of Justice (OOJ) inasmuch as he had failed to appear on the day ordered.

September 22, 1966; New York City authorities arrested 13 major LCN leaders at a "Little Apalachin" gathering in the La Stella Restaurant, Queens, New York. Among those taken into custody were Commission members Carlo Gambino and Joe Colombo; Thomas Eboli, acting boss of the Vito Genovese Family; and Santo Trafficante, Jr., boss of the Tampa Family.

March 23, 1967: Frank Balistrieri, boss of the Milwaukee Family, was convicted of violating the Federal income tax laws.

May 9, 1967: Sam Battaglia, acting boss of the Chicago Family, was convicted of violating the Anti-Racketeering Act and subsequently sentenced to 15 years in prison. He was succeeded by John Philip Cerone.

July 13, 1967: Thomas Luchese Commission member from New York City, died of natural causes. He was succeeded eventually by Carmine Tramunti.

March 4, 1968: Peter Crociata, underboss in what was formerly known as the Bonanno Family, was shot and seriously wounded but eventually recovered.

September 14, 1968: Attendance of various warring factions at a reception given by Paul Sciacca, recently appointed head of the old Bonanno Family, was indicative of efforts being made to solve the blood feud and power struggle dating back to Joe Bonanno's expulsion from the Commission in 1964.

February 14, 1969: Vito Genovese, Commission member from New York City, died of natural causes while incarcerated at the Medical Center for Federal Prisoners, Springfield, Missouri.

July 9, 1969: A group of dissident members of the Buffalo Family met at the farm of Frank Valenti, near Henrietta, New York, and voted to form a rump organization until such time as the National Commission agreed to oust Steve Magaddino as the head of the Family. Allegedly responsible for the upheaval was a FBI raid of Magaddino's gambling operation the preceding November, leading to the confiscation of $500,000 at a time when Magaddino claimed to be suffering from a severe shortage of funds. Named to head the new group was Salvatore Pieri.

September 18, 1969: Frank Mari, heir apparent to Sciacca, boss of the Bonanno Family, and his bodyguard, Mike Adamo, were last seen alive. Both were reportedly murdered in the continuing dispute as to who would eventually gain control of the Family.

June 11, 1970:  Gaspare DiGregorio, appointed by the Commission to succeed Joe Bonanno following the latter's expulsion and disappearance in 1964, died of natural causes. DiGregorio had served as head of the Bonanno Family from January or February, 1965, until approximately May, 1966.

August 31, 1970: Raymond Patriarca, LCN boss of New England, was sentenced to 10 years in prison for conspiracy to murder.

September 15, 1970: Frank Milano, former boss of the Cleveland Family, died in Los Angeles of natural causes.

September 25, 1970: Salvatore Pieri, head of the insurgent LCN Family in the Buffalo area, was convicted on Federal charges of bribery and tampering with a juror during his earlier trial for violating the ITSP Statute. He was sentenced to 5 years in prison and was succeeded by Joseph Fino.

October 15, 1970: The Organized Crime Control Act of 1970 was signed into law, giving the FBI jurisdiction over major local gambling operations and hoodlum infiltration of legitimate business. Title IX of the Act is Racketeering Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Statute commonly referred to as the RICO Statute.

October 15, 1970: Carlos Marcello, boss of the New Orleans Family, was imprisoned for 6 months after the Supreme Court denied bail pending further appeals on his conviction for assaulting a Federal officer.

November 7, 1970: Joseph Aiello, underboss of the Madison, Wisconsin, Family, died of natural causes. This Family is no longer active.

April 3, 1971: Joe Valachi, one of the most protected prisoners in the history of the Federal prison system, died of natural causes at La Tuna Federal Penitentiary, El Paso, Texas.

May 12, 1971; Paul Sciacca, the leader of the Bonanno Family, and Michael Casale, a caporegime, were arrested for conspiring to sell and for the sale of heroin. Sciacca was replaced by Natale Evola.

June 28, 1971; Commission member Joseph Colombo was shot and critically wounded during a New York City street rally less than 3 months after being arrested by FBI Agents on Federal gambling charges. He was eventually succeeded by Thomas DiBella.

September 17, 1971; James D. Plumeri, a captain in the New York City Family of the late Thomas Luchese was found strangled to death less than 6 months after his conviction on charges of violating the Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act.

April 7, 1972:   Joseph Gregory Gallo, head of a dissident faction within the Colombo Family and believed by many to have been behind the attempt on Colombo's life, was shot to death in a New York City restaurant. It had been a slaying that had been planned by Joseph Colombo before Gallo got him first.

June 5, 1972: Dominic Chirico, who was a close associate of Frank Valenti, was killed by individuals associated with the group which was dissatisfied with Valenti. Valenti appointed himself as boss of the Rochester LCN when Rochester became a separate operation from Buffalo. Valenti developed a reputation as very greedy and other LCN members became upset with Valenti because they did not feel that they were receiving their fair share of the proceeds from the Rochester mob. After the killing, Valenti was told to step aside, which he did on June 6, 1972. Samuel "Red" Russotti was appointed the boss.

July 16, 1972:   Thomas (Tommy Ryan) Eboli, acting boss of the former Genovese Family, was shot to death on a Brooklyn sidewalk at approximately 1 a.m. Eboli, who had been in a contest for control with Gerado Catena and was presumed to have prevailed, was succeeded by Frank Tieri.

August 11, 1972: An unidentified gunman shot 4 men to death at the Neapolitan Noodle, a Manhattan restaurant. The victims were wholesale meat dealers, having been mistaken apparently for Alphonse Persico, Jerry Langella, and other members of the Colombo Family faction, who were dining at the restaurant the same time.

August 25, 1972: Louis Donald Shoulders, notorious St. Louis hoodlum figure, was killed when a bomb exploded in his auto during the early morning hours.

November 5, 1972: Meyer Lansky, American hoodlum and gambling figure, departed Israel after the Israeli Supreme Court denied his appeal for the continuance of his tourist visa or his application for immigrant status (previously rejected in September, 1971, by the Minister of the Interior). Although Lansky's airplane traveled through Switzerland, Africa, and several countries in South and Central America he was unable to gain entry to any other country and was arrested by FBI Agents at the Miami airport, November 7, 1972, on contempt of Federal grand jury charges.

August 28, 1973: Natale Evola, boss of the Bonanno Family, died of natural causes. He was replaced by Philip Rastelli.

January 24, 1974: Carmine (Lilo) Galante, a close associate of former Commission member Joe Bonanno, was released from prison after serving 12 years on Federal narcotics charges and returned to New York City with avowed intention of gaining control of the Bonanno Family.

April 23, 1974: Michael Genovese, reported to be "second in command" of the Pittsburgh LCN Family, was ordered to jail for contempt after refusing to answer questions before a Federal grand jury.

May 8, 1974: John V. Camilleri, a caporegime, vas shot to death in what was seen as an outbreak of hostilities between rival factions of the Magaddino Family--1 led by Salvatore Pieri, the other by Joseph Fino.

July 19, 1974:   Stefano Magaddino, Commission member from Buffalo, New York, died of natural causes. He was succeeded after considerable debate by Sam Frangiamore, a ranking member of the dissident group, in hopes of restoring peace to the Buffalo Family.

July 18, 1974:   Sam Giancana was deported by the Mexican Government and forced to return to Chicago.

October 9, 1974: A body, believed to be that of Dominick Scialo, a Colombo Family caporegime, vas discovered buried in the basement of a Brooklyn social club.

June 19, 1975:  Sam Giancana, former Commission member, was found shot to death in his Oak Park, Illinois, residence.

July 30, 1975:   Former Teamsters President, James R. Hoffa, disappeared. His body has never been found, nor has the case been solved. It is the consensus of people close to the investigation that Hoffa was murdered as a result of his efforts to regain the Teamsters' presidency and his verbal threats about disclosing the LCN control of the Teamsters if, in fact, be did not regain the Teamsters' presidency.

September 6, 1975: Joseph Spinuzzi, boss of the Colorado Family, died of natural causes.

October 15, 1975: Carlo Gambino died of natural causes. Before his death he instituted a major regrouping program; replenishment of manpower and the consolidation of forces were entailed. The family membership roles were opened in 1973, for first time in 16 years—they had been closed to prevent Government infiltration--and Sicilian aliens were being smuggled in by the hundreds via Canada, to work in pizza parlors and be available for underworld dirty work. He was succeeded by his son-in-law Paul Castellano.

November 18, 1975: Mario Pannicioli, a Gambino associate, was murdered while he was on his way to court to stand trial for a gangland murder. Pannicioli was also under investigation in a million-dollar bank swindle.

November 23, 1975: Jimmy "The Hammer" Massaro was killed. After an investigation was conducted by the Monroe County Sheriff's Office, Red Russotti, Rene Piccaretto, Sam Gingello, Dick Marino, Tom Marotta, and Eugene Di Francesco, were convicted of Massaro's murder, and all received sentences of 25 years' on January 1, 1977. Thomas Didio was placed in charge of the Rochester LCN.

February 12, 1976: Joseph Barboza, who had been a Government witness, was shot gunned to death in San Francisco. Barboza's testimony had led to the conviction of Raymond Patriarca for conspiracy to commit murder.

April 23, 1976: Philip Rastelli, the Bonanno Family boss was convicted of an antitrust violation and extortion, arising out of his efforts to create a monopoly in the mobile commissary business. Rastelli was sentenced on August 27, 1976, to 1 year on the antitrust count and to 3 concurrent 10-year terms on 3 counts of extortion.

September 2, 1976: Leo Moceri was the organized crime boss in Akron and reportedly the number-2 man in northern Oho to James Licavoli, who had succeeded Johni Scalish. Scalish died of natural causes in 1976. Moceri was reported missing and presumed dead after his damaged and bloodstained automobile was discovered in a motel parking lot in a suburb of Akron.

September 5, 1976: John Cutrone, a Gallo loyalist who defected after the death of Joseph Gallo and formed an independent gang, was machine-gunned to death in a luncheonette in Brooklyn, New York.

May 17, 1977: John Nardi, one of the leaders of the anti-Licavoli faction in Cleveland was killed by the remote control detonation of a bomb that had been placed in an automobile parked next to Nardi's.

October 6, 1977: Daniel Patrick Greene was killed by an explosive device detonated as he entered his car on a Cleveland street. His death culminated an organized crime feud that had started in 1975. The battle was over the control of the Cleveland LCN Family's activities in northeast Ohio. It was brought about by the sudden and unexpected death of the former LCN boss John Scalish, and the succession to the throne by James T. Licavoli. A refusal of the Greene group to accept this change in power led to this war. As a result of investigations that followed, James T. Licavoli, the head of the Cleveland Family; James T. Fratianno, and others were indicted for murder.

June 12, 1978:  Salvatore Bonanno and Joseph Bonanno, Jr. had their paroles revoked for reporting their incomes inaccurately, and were sentenced to 30 months and 34 months, respectively. Both Bonanno brothers had been convicted of extortion in 1972.

August 8, 1978: Russell Bufalino, LCN boss from Pittson, was convicted in U.S. District Court, SDNY on charges of extortion.

April 26, 1979: Anthony Russo, a ranking Genovese loyalist who had been a chauffeur and bodyguard for Genovese and was the gang leader in Monmouth County, New Jersey, where Genovese had lived was found shot to death in Long Branch, New Jersey. Russo had been the subject of FBI surveillance which revealed details of hidden casino ownership and skimming in Las Vegas.

July 12, 1979:   Carmine Galante, the boss of the Bonanno Family, was gunned down as he ate lunch at Joe and Mary's Restaurant in Brooklyn, New York.

March 21, 1980: Angelo Bruno, the boss of the Philadelphia Family, was killed by a shotgun blast. Some believe Bruno was killed because of his reluctance to share Atlantic City. The murder set off a series of 15 gangland-style killings as family members and associates fought among themselves. Philip Charles Testa assumed control of the family.

March 1, 1981: Salvatore Catalano, a Sicilian, stepped down as boss of the Bonnano Family.  Sources indicated that Catalano felt he was unable to communicate with members of the Bonnano Family as well as outsiders because of language problems.

July 20, 1982:   Cleveland LCN boss James Licavoli was sentenced to 17 years in prison for RICO, gambling, murder, and conspiracy charges in U.S. District Court, Cleveland, Ohio.

February 7, 1984: The entire hierarchy of the Kansas City LCN was indicted by a special Federal grand jury in Kansas City, Missouri. The RICO indictment used 4 predicate violations: the 1978 conspiracy to murder Carl Spero; LCN hidden interest in skimming from the Argent Corporation; LCN hidden interest in skimming from the Tropicana casino; and the LCN skimming of the Kansas City bingo business. On September 4, 1984, subsequent to guilty pleas, Carl Civella received a 10- to 30-year sentence with a fine and Anthony Civella was sentenced to 5 years' and a fine.

September 18, 1984: Anthony Corallo, boss of the Luchese Family, was among 21 persons and 16 organizations indicted for conspiring to dominate the private garbage collection business on Long Island. It also charged that disputes among the conspirators were settled by Corallo and Paul Castellano, boss of the Gambino Family, and that Corallo and Castellano split quarterly payments of over $50,000 from the companies.

December 16, 1985: Paul Castellano, boss of the Gambino LCN Family, was killed in a mob hit on a New York City street. Only a few weeks after the slaying, John Gotti was installed as the new boss of the Gambino Family.

June 23, 1986:  The bodies of Michael and Anthony Spilotro were found in a grave in Morocco, Indiana.

January 13, 1987: U.S. District Court Judge Richard Queen SDNY, sentenced the below-listed defendants in the Commission case as follows:

Anthony Salerno, Genovese Family boss, received 100 years' to run consecutively and was fined $240,000 with no parole.

Carmine Persico, Colombo Family boss, was sentenced to 100 years' to run consecutively, and fined $240,000 with no parole.

Gennaro Langella, Colombo Family underboss, was sentenced to 100 years' to run consecutively, and was fined $240,000, with no parole.

Ralph Scopo, Colombo Family soldier, was sentenced to 100 years' to run consecutively, and was fined $240,000 with no parole.

Anthony Corallo, Luchese Family boss, was sentenced to 100 years' to run consecutively, and was fined $240,000 with no parole.

Salvatore Santoro, Luchese Family underboss, was sentenced to 100 years' to run consecutively, and was fined 250,000 with no parole.

Anthony Indelicato, Bonanno Family member, was sentenced to 40 years in prison to run consecutively, and fined $50,000 with no parole.

January 16, 1987: Philip Rastelli, boss of the Bonanno Family, was sentenced to 12 years in a Federal prison for directing a massive labor racketeering conspiracy from 1964 to 1985 (IBT Local 814).

March 2, 1987: A New York jury returned guilty verdicts against 18 subjects in the much-publicized "Pizza Connection" trial. As a direct result of this investigation, an additional 175 Mafia members and associates in Italy were indicted. The only acquittal in this case was for Vito Badalamenti, the son of Gaetano Badalamenti, who was the former chief of the Sicilian Mafia and known in Italy as the boss of all bosses.

August 26, 1987: A civil RICO complaint was filed in the EDNY against the Bonanno LCN Family, its top hierarchy, labor union locals, and property controlled by this family. The complaint asked the court to appoint a trustee to manage Bonanno-dominated Teamster Local 814, and called for the forfeiture of 3 properties used for gambling purposes and the divestiture of 3 hotels and a taxi company. It also barred specific Bonanno Family members from engaging in unlawful activities, from making new family members, and from associating with each other for business purposes. This is the first time that the Government had attempted to enjoin the operation of an organized crime family, and, if they are successful, family members will face tough contempt sanctions should they engage in certain of their traditional activities.

Daniel J. Torbitt